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영어/영어 문법·어법

The -ing forms | -ing 형태

태뽕이 2021. 1. 9. 10:26
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The -ing forms

A verb ending in -ing is either a present participle or a gerund. These two forms look identical. The difference is in their functions in a sentence.

-ing 형태

-ing로 끝나는 동사는 현재 분사거나 동명사입니다. 이 두 형태는 똑같이 보입니다. 차이는 문장에서의 기능입니다.

 

 

 

Present participles

A present participle is most commonly used as part of the continuous form of a verb, after verbs of perception, after verbs of movement, or as an adjective.

현재 분사

현재 분사는 가장 일반적으로 동사의 진행형 형태의 일부로서, 지각 동사 뒤에서, 동작 동사 뒤에서, 또는 형용사로서 사용됩니다.

 

 

 

Present participles as part of the continuous form of a verb

Present participles are an element in all continuous verb forms (past, present, future, conditional, etc.). The helping verb will indicate the tense, while the present participle remains unchanging.

동사의 진행형 형태의 일부로서 현재 분사

현재 분사는 모든 진행형 동사 형태 (과거, 현재, 미래, 진행형 등)에서 주성원입니다. 이 경우 현재 분사는 변하지 않고 조동사가 시제를 표시합니다.

 

Examples

• He is painting.

• She was waiting.

• They will be coming.

• We would be staying.

• I would have been leaving.

 

 

 

Present participles after verbs of perception

Present participles can be used after verbs of perception in the pattern verb + object + present participle to indicate the action being perceived.

지각 동사 뒤의 현재 분사

현재 분사는 행동이 지각되고 있음을 표현하기 위해서 동사 + 목적어 + 현재 분사 패턴으로 지각 동사 뒤에 사용될 수 있습니다.

 

Examples

• We saw him swimming across the pond.

• I watched her painting Sarah's portrait.

• I couldn't hear her singing because of the noise.

• I would like to see you knitting sometime.

 

 

 

Present participles after verbs of movement, action, or position, to indicate parallel activity.

평행적인 행동을 표시하는 움직임, 행위, 또는 위치 동사 뒤의 현재 분사

 

Examples

• She sat looking at the sea.

• He walks reading his newspaper.

• I cook listening to the radio.

• Sally lay listening to the bugs in the grass.

 

 

 

Present participles as adjectives

형용사로서의 현재 분사

 

Examples

• Did you read that amazing book?

• This movie is so exciting!

• His economics class is boring.

 

 

 

 

 

Gerunds

The gerund always has the same function as a noun, although it looks like a verb. It can be used in the same way as a noun.

동명사

동명사는 동사처럼 보이지만 항상 명사와 같은 기능을 가집니다. 이것은 명사와 같은 용법으로 사용될 수 있습니다.

 

1) A gerund as the subject of the sentence

문장의 주어로서의 동명사

 

Examples

• Eating people is wrong.

• Driving too fast is dangerous.

• Walking is good for you.

• Your knitting is beautiful.

 

 

 

2) The gerund as the complement of the verb 'to be'

'be' 동사의 보어로서의 동명사

 

Examples

• One of his duties is attending meetings.

• The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.

• One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.

 

 

 

3) A gerund after prepositions

전치사 뒤의 동명사

 

Examples

• Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?

• She is good at painting.

• I was the fastest at climbing the rope.

• He learns music by listening to the chords.

 

 

 

3) A gerund after certain specific verbs

몇몇 특정 동사 뒤의 동명사

 

Examples

• I like cooking.

• He enjoys walking.

• They hate milking cows.

• I can imagine drifting away in a balloon.

 

 

 

4) A gerund in compound nouns

복합 명사에서의 동명사

 

Examples

• I took her to her driving lessons.

• We are going to the swimming pool.

• My uncle does a lot of bird-watching.

• I found this pie by dumpster-diving.

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